Getting into the brain: Potential of nanotechnology in the management of NeuroAIDS

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Aug 1;103:202-17. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2016.02.008. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Abstract

In spite of significant advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, the elimination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoirs from the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS) remains a formidable task. The incapability of ARV to go across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after systemic administration makes the brain one of the dominant HIV reservoirs. Thus, screening, monitoring, and elimination of HIV reservoirs from the brain remain a clinically daunting and key task. The practice and investigation of nanomedicine possesses potentials for therapeutics against neuroAIDS. This review highlights the advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology to design and develop specific size therapeutic cargo for efficient navigation across BBB so as to recognize and eradicate HIV brain reservoirs. Different navigation and drug release strategies, their biocompatibility and efficacy with related challenges and future prospects are also discussed. This review would be an excellent platform to understand nano-enable multidisciplinary research to formulate efficient nanomedicine for the management of neuroAIDS.

Keywords: Anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy; Blood–brain barrier (BBB); Bradykinin (PubChem CID: 439,201); CNS drug delivery; Enfuvirtide (PubChem CID: 16,130,199), Lamivudine & Zidovudine (PubChem CID: 160,352); Ferrous oxide or iron (II) oxide (PubChem CID: 14,945); Foscarnet sodium (PubChem CID: 44,561); HIV monitoring; HIV-1; Magnetic nanoparticle; Mannitol (PubChem CID: 6251); Nanotechnology; Neopterin (PubChem CID: 4455); NeuroAIDS; Pluronic-P85 (PubChem CID: 24,751); Saquinavir mesylate (PubChem CID: 60,934); Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (PubChem CID: 6,398,764).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / drug therapy*
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / metabolism*
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / physiopathology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / metabolism
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism*
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / virology
  • HIV / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Nanomedicine / methods*
  • Nanomedicine / trends*

Substances

  • Anti-HIV Agents