Antidiabetic efficacy of citronellol, a citrus monoterpene by ameliorating the hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Apr 25;250:38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.02.020. Epub 2016 Mar 2.


Diabetes mellitus is a clinically complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances. During diabetes, endogenous hepatic glucose production is increased as a result of impaired activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic efficacy of citronellol, a citrus monoterpene in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg b.w). STZ induced diabetic rats received citronellol orally at the doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w for 30 days. In this study the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin (Hb), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), glycogen, and the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, liver and kidney markers were evaluated. Oral administration of citronellol (50 mg/kg) for 30 days dose dependently improved the levels of insulin, Hb and hepatic glycogen with significant decrease in glucose and HbA1C levels. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, hepatic and kidney markers were restored to near normal. Citronellol supplement was found to be effective in preserving the normal histological appearance of hepatic cells and insulin-positive β-cells in STZ-rats. Our results suggest that administration of citronellol attenuates the hyperglycemia in the STZ-induced diabetic rats by ameliorating the key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and could be developed as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combating diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Citronellol; Diabetes mellitus; Glucose; Insulin; Streptozotocin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Citrus / chemistry
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / enzymology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / enzymology*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Monoterpenes / chemistry
  • Monoterpenes / therapeutic use*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Streptozocin


  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Monoterpenes
  • Streptozocin
  • Glucose
  • citronellol