Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Nutrition. 2016 Jun;32(6):628-36. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Dec 31.


Objective: Findings from epidemiologic studies of coffee consumption and risk for cognitive decline or dementia are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the association between coffee consumption and the risk for cognitive decline and dementia.

Methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases between 1966 and December 2014. Prospective cohorts that reported relative risk (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of coffee consumption with dementia incidence or cognitive changing were eligible. Study-specific RRs were combined by using a random-effects model.

Results: Eleven prospective studies, including 29,155 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. The combined RR indicated that high coffee consumption was not associated with the different measures of cognitive decline or dementia (summary RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.84-1.11). Subgroup analyses suggested a significant inverse association between highest coffee consumption and the risk for Alzheimer disease (summary RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.97). The dose-response analysis, including eight studies, did not show an association between the increment of coffee intake and cognitive decline or dementia risk (an increment of 1 cup/d of coffee consumed; summary RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02).

Conclusions: The present study suggests that higher coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk for Alzheimer disease. Further randomized controlled trials or well-designed cohort studies are needed to determine the association between coffee consumption and cognitive decline or dementia.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease; Coffee consumption; Cognitive decline; Dementia; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Coffee*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / epidemiology*
  • Dementia / epidemiology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors


  • Coffee