Aluminum chloride induces neuroinflammation, loss of neuronal dendritic spine and cognition impairment in developing rat

Chemosphere. 2016 May:151:289-95. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.092. Epub 2016 Mar 15.


Aluminum (Al) is present in the daily life of humans, and the incidence of Al contamination increased in recent years. Long-term excessive Al intake induces neuroinflammation and cognition impairment. Neuroinflammation alter density of dendritic spine, which, in turn, influence cognition function. However, it is unknown whether increased neuroinflammation is associated with altered density of dendritic spine in Al-treated rats. In the present study, AlCl3 was orally administrated to rat at 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg for 90d. We examined the effects of AlCl3 on the cognition function, density of dendritic spine in hippocampus of CA1 and DG region and the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MHC II, CX3CL1 and BNDF in developing rat. These results showed exposure to AlCl3 lead to increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCH II, decreased mRNA levels of CX3CL1 and BDNF, decreased density of dendritic spine and impaired learning and memory in developing rat. Our results suggest AlCl3 can induce neuroinflammation that may result in loss of spine, and thereby leads to learning and memory deficits.

Keywords: Aluminum chloride; Cognition impairment; Dendritic spine; Hippocampus; Neuroinflammation; Rat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Aluminum Compounds / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Chlorides / toxicity*
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Cognition Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Cognition Disorders / immunology
  • Cognition Disorders / pathology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Dendritic Spines / drug effects*
  • Dendritic Spines / immunology
  • Dendritic Spines / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hippocampus / drug effects*
  • Hippocampus / immunology
  • Hippocampus / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


  • Aluminum Compounds
  • Chlorides
  • Cytokines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Aluminum Chloride