Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women

Physiol Behav. 2016 May 15;159:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.03.002. Epub 2016 Mar 3.


Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake.

Trial registration: NCT01316991.

Keywords: Chewing gum; Food intake; Obese; Satiety; Snacking.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Weight
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chewing Gum*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Eating / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Satiety Response / physiology*
  • Snacks / physiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Chewing Gum

Associated data