Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):717-27. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00339-1. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Abstract

Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barré syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Axons / immunology*
  • Axons / pathology
  • Campylobacter Infections / complications
  • Campylobacter Infections / immunology
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Management
  • Electrophysiology
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / complications
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / immunology
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / physiopathology
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Muscle Weakness / complications
  • Muscle Weakness / etiology
  • Neural Conduction / immunology*
  • Paralysis / complications
  • Paralysis / immunology*
  • Plasma Exchange*
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Prognosis
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / prevention & control
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Influenza Vaccines