Natural oxygenation of Champagne wine during ageing on lees: A metabolomics picture of hormesis

Food Chem. 2016 Jul 15:203:207-215. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.043. Epub 2016 Feb 6.


The oxygenation of Champagne wine after 4 and 6 years of aging on lees in bottle was investigated by FTICR-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Three levels of permeability were considered for the stoppers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 mg/L/year of oxygen transfer rate. Our results confirmed a good repeatability of ultra-high resolution FTICR-MS, both in terms of m/z and coefficient of variation of peak intensities among biological replicates. Vintages appeared to be the most discriminated features, and metabolite annotations suggested that the oldest wines (2006) were characterized by a higher sensitivity towards oxygenation. Within each vintage, the oxygenation mechanisms appeared to be different for low and high ingresses of oxygen, in agreement with the hormesis character of wine oxygenation. In the particular case of single variety wines and for a given level of stopper permeability, our results also showed that variety discrimination could be easily achieved among wines.

Keywords: Champagne wine; Direct injection Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry; Metabolites; Network; Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Food Storage
  • Hormesis*
  • Humans
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Metabolomics / methods*
  • Oxygen / chemistry*
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Time Factors
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Oxygen