Prevalence and aetiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation among children aged 8-10 years in Tirana, Albania

Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2016 Mar;17(1):75-9.


Aim: Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) describes the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralisation of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are frequently associated with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and aetiology of MIH in children living in Tirana, Albania.

Design: The study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, and Tirana Dental Public Health Service. A total of 1,575 school children aged 8-10 years were examined by 7 calibrated examiners (dentists) (kappa: 0.86). The Weerheijm criteria were used for the diagnosis of demarcated opacities, post-eruption breakdown, atypical restorations, and extracted PFMs due to MIH.

Results: Prevalence of MIH was found to be 14% (n=227). In the 227 children with MIH, tooth 36 was the most affected PFM, and tooth 46 the least affected. Tooth 21 was the most affected incisor and tooth 32 the least affected incisor by MIH. MIH(+) children had significanly more childhood diseases in the first 3 years of life (p=0.006). Among the children who used antibiotics, MIH(+) cases were 1.41 (1.06-1.87) times higher than in children who did not usedantibiotics, MIH(-) cases.

Conclusion: MIH was found to be common among 8-10 year-old Tirana children.

MeSH terms

  • Albania / epidemiology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Enamel / abnormalities
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / abnormalities
  • Male
  • Maternal Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Molar / abnormalities
  • Prevalence
  • Residence Characteristics / statistics & numerical data
  • Tooth Extraction / statistics & numerical data
  • Tooth Loss / epidemiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents