The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:3627463. doi: 10.1155/2016/3627463. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Abstract

This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state.

MeSH terms

  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / drug effects
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / growth & development
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / pathogenicity
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / drug effects
  • Candida albicans / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity
  • Chlorhexidine / administration & dosage
  • Enterococcus faecalis / drug effects
  • Enterococcus faecalis / growth & development
  • Enterococcus faecalis / pathogenicity
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus / drug effects
  • Lactobacillus / growth & development
  • Lactobacillus / pathogenicity
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  • Mouth / microbiology*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / drug effects
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / growth & development
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / pathogenicity
  • Prevotella intermedia / drug effects
  • Prevotella intermedia / growth & development
  • Prevotella intermedia / pathogenicity
  • Propolis / administration & dosage*
  • Propolis / chemistry
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / growth & development
  • Staphylococcus aureus / pathogenicity
  • Streptococcus mutans / drug effects
  • Streptococcus mutans / growth & development
  • Streptococcus mutans / pathogenicity

Substances

  • Propolis
  • Chlorhexidine