[Effects of Constant Intake of Lutein-rich Spinach on Macular Pigment Optical Density: a Pilot Study]

Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2016 Jan;120(1):41-8.
[Article in Japanese]


Purpose: Anti-oxidative nutrient supplements, including lutein, are an important preventive approach for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this pilot study, we obtained data required for planning a future dietary intervention study investigating the prevention of AMD progression with lutein-rich spinach.

Methods: We examined 22 eyes from 11 healthy nonsmokers (ages 21-45 years) who ingested 75 g of frozen spinach containing 10 mg lutein every day for 2 months. Food frequency questionnaire, measurement of macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and eye and blood examinations were performed.

Results: Mean lutein ± SD intake from food was 0.87 ± 0.76 mg/1,000 kcal at baseline. Mean MPOD, best corrected visual acuity, and serum lutein concentrations were increased at 1 and 2 months compared with baseline.

Conclusion: Constant intake of lutein-rich spinach increased both MPOD and serum lutein concentrations. These data are important for planning of a future interventional study examining the effects of dietary lutein.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Eye / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lutein / metabolism*
  • Macular Pigment / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Spinacia oleracea*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Visual Acuity / physiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Macular Pigment
  • Lutein