Estimated continuous cardiac output based on pulse wave transit time in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a comparison with transpulmonary thermodilution

J Clin Monit Comput. 2017 Apr;31(2):361-370. doi: 10.1007/s10877-016-9853-5. Epub 2016 Mar 7.


To evaluate the accuracy of estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) based on pulse wave transit time in comparison with cardiac output (CO) assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We calibrated the esCCO system with non-invasive (Part 1) and invasive (Part 2) blood pressure and compared with TPTD measurements. We performed parallel measurements of CO with both techniques and assessed the accuracy and precision of individual CO values and agreement of trends of changes perioperatively (Part 1) and postoperatively (Part 2). A Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias between non-invasive esCCO and TPTD of 0.9 L/min and limits of agreement of ±2.8 L/min. Intraoperative bias was 1.2 L/min with limits of agreement of ±2.9 L/min and percentage error (PE) of 64 %. Postoperatively, bias was 0.4 L/min, limits of agreement of ±2.3 L/min and PE of 41 %. A Bland-Altman analysis of invasive esCCO and TPTD after OPCAB found bias of 0.3 L/min with limits of agreement of ±2.1 L/min and PE of 40 %. A 4-quadrant plot analysis of non-invasive esCCO versus TPTD revealed overall, intraoperative and postoperative concordance rate of 76, 65, and 89 %, respectively. The analysis of trending ability of invasive esCCO after OPCAB revealed concordance rate of 73 %. During OPCAB, esCCO demonstrated poor accuracy, precision and trending ability compared to TPTD. Postoperatively, non-invasive esCCO showed better agreement with TPTD. However, invasive calibration of esCCO did not improve the accuracy and precision and the trending ability of method.

Keywords: Cardiac output; Estimated continuous cardiac output; Hemodynamics; Intraoperative monitoring.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anesthesia
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Calibration
  • Cardiac Output / physiology*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / instrumentation
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Pulse Wave Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Thermodilution / methods*
  • Time Factors
  • Vascular Resistance