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. 2016 Mar 8;11(3):e0150502.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150502. eCollection 2016.

The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Intestinal Integrity and Microbial Diversity in Mice

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Free PMC article

The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Intestinal Integrity and Microbial Diversity in Mice

Sara C Campbell et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The gut microbiota is now known to play an important role contributing to inflammatory-based chronic diseases. This study examined intestinal integrity/inflammation and the gut microbial communities in sedentary and exercising mice presented with a normal or high-fat diet.

Methods: Thirty-six, 6-week old C57BL/6NTac male mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet for 12-weeks and randomly assigned to exercise or sedentary groups. After 12 weeks animals were sacrificed and duodenum/ileum tissues were fixed for immunohistochemistry for occludin, E-cadherin, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The bacterial communities were assayed in fecal samples using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons.

Results: Lean sedentary (LS) mice presented normal histologic villi while obese sedentary (OS) mice had similar villi height with more than twice the width of the LS animals. Both lean (LX) and obese exercise (OX) mice duodenum and ileum were histologically normal. COX-2 expression was the greatest in the OS group, followed by LS, LX and OX. The TRFLP and pyrosequencing indicated that members of the Clostridiales order were predominant in all diet groups. Specific phylotypes were observed with exercise, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzi, Clostridium spp., and Allobaculum spp.

Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise has a strong influence on gut integrity and host microbiome which points to the necessity for more mechanistic studies of the interactions between specific bacteria in the gut and its host.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1. The Effects of Exercise on Duodenal Morphology.
Widening in obese sedentary compared to lean sedentary animal (black arrows) due to: increase in inflammatory cells, plasmacystoid and lymphoid cells (red arrow); and infiltration of fat cells (yellow arrow). Exercise appears to protect the villi from widening. Obese exercise villi contain wider lumen (asterisk) and are devoid of fat cell infiltrate. Lean Sedentary (A), Obese Sedentary (B), Lean Exercise (C), Obese Exercise (D).
Fig 2
Fig 2. The Effects of Exercise on Occludin Expression in Ileum.
Sections prepared after 12 weeks of treatment lean sedentary (A), obese sedentary (B), lean exercise (C), obese exercise (D),were stained with anti-occludin antibody. Binding was visualized using a Vectastain Elite ABC kit (original magnification x 400). One representative section from 6 mice/treatment group is shown.
Fig 3
Fig 3. The Effects of Exercise on E-cadherin Expression in Ileum.
Sections prepared after 12 weeks of treatment lean sedentary (A), obese sedentary (B), lean exercise (C), obese exercise (D),were stained with anti-E-cadherin antibody. Binding was visualized using a Vectastain Elite ABC kit (original magnification x 400). One representative section from 6 mice/treatment group is shown.
Fig 4
Fig 4. The Effects of Exercise on COX-2 Expression in Duodenum.
Duodenal (a) and Ileal (b) sections prepared after 12 weeks of treatment lean sedentary (A), obese sedentary (B), lean exercise (C), obese exercise (D),were stained with anti-COX-2 antibody. Binding was visualized using a Vectastain Elite ABC kit (original magnification x 400). One representative section from 6 mice/treatment group is shown.
Fig 5
Fig 5. Heat Map.
Heat map of average peak area within TRFLP profiles of fecal pellet bacterial community grouped by treatment (L, lean diet; O, high fat diet; S, sedentary; X, exercise). The major peaks in the lean exercise treatment are indicated.
Fig 6
Fig 6. Phylogenetic Tree.
Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree from TRFLP/clones and pyrosequencing based on 379 unambiguously aligned bases. Color coding for the experimental treatments is indicated.
Fig 7
Fig 7. Experimental Results Summary.
Impacts of high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise on intestinal tissue, microbiome and systemic biomarkers. Results indicate exercise can protect intestinal morphology in the presence of a HFD, promote a diverse microbiome that has microbes that promote intestinal health and reduce systemic inflammation while promoting satiety.

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