The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry

Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2016 May;13(5):229-38. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2015.2072. Epub 2016 Mar 8.


Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p < 0.05). The mechanism of the antibiofilm effect of the G. biloba extract showed that the motility reduction may be one of the mechanisms of G. biloba extract against some serotypes of Salmonella and Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Chickens
  • Ducks
  • Food Industry
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Ginkgo biloba*
  • Listeria / drug effects
  • Listeria / physiology
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Salmonella / drug effects
  • Salmonella / physiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Plant Extracts