The effects of culture conditions (aerobic or anaerobic) and glucose in the medium on the production of spirosomes in Escherichia coli B were studied by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. The Mr of the spirosome of E. coli B was estimated to be 97,000. Electron microscopy revealed that the amount of spirosomes derived from anaerobic cultures was about eightfold larger than that from aerobic cultures. In SDS-PAGE, the bands of spirosome protein derived from anaerobic cultures were more intense than those derived from aerobic cultures, either in peptone water or in Davis-Mingioli's minimal medium. With increased glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, the intensity of the band of spirosome protein was similar to that observed under anaerobic conditions in basal media. These results suggest that spirosome production by E. coli B is related to its anaerobic glycolysis activity.