Estimations of dietary vitamin D requirements in black and white children

Pediatr Res. 2016 Jul;80(1):14-20. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.46. Epub 2016 Mar 9.


Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) dietary guidelines for vitamin D are based on limited pediatric data. Our objective was to estimate the dietary vitamin D requirements for maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at the various IOM-considered thresholds of vitamin D status (12, 16, and 20 ng/ml) during fall and winter in children.

Methods: Ninety-six healthy 8- to 14-y-old Pittsburgh-area black and white children enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 1,000 IU daily for 6 mo with baseline and 2-mo follow-up assessments completed during October through April were studied. Vitamin D intake from diet and study supplement adjusted for adherence and serum 25(OH)D were measured.

Results: The vitamin D intakes needed to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 12, 16, and 20 ng/ml in 90% of the children were 581, 1,062, and 1543 IU/day, respectively. The estimated vitamin D intakes needed to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 20 ng/ml in 97.5% of the children was 2,098 IU/day.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that the current vitamin D recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (600 IU/day) is insufficient to cover the skeletal health needs of at least 50% of black and white children.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Black People
  • Black or African American
  • Child
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Compliance
  • Pediatrics
  • Time Factors
  • United States
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology*
  • White People


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D