Moderate Hypofractionation with Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Prostate Cancer: Long-term Results of a Phase I-II Study

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2016 Aug;28(8):490-500. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2016.02.005. Epub 2016 Mar 5.


Aims: To report 5 year outcome and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided tomotherapy with a moderate hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost approach.

Materials and methods: In total, 211 prostate cancer patients, 78 low risk, 53 intermediate risk and 80 high risk were treated between 2005 and 2011. Intermediate- and high-risk patients received 51.8 Gy to pelvic lymph nodes and concomitant simultaneous integrated boost to prostate up to 74.2 Gy/28 fractions, whereas low-risk patients were treated to the prostate only with 71.4 Gy/28 fractions. Daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image guidance was applied. Androgen deprivation was prescribed for a median duration of 6 months for low-risk patients (for downsizing), 12 months for intermediate-risk and 36 months for high-risk patients. The 5 year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival and late gastrointestinal and genitourinary CTCAE.v3 toxicity were assessed. The effect of several clinical variables on both outcome and gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity was tested by uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

Results: After a median follow-up of 5 years, the late toxicity actuarial incidence was: genitourinary ≥ grade 2: 20.2%; genitourinary ≥ grade 3: 5.9%; gastrointestinal ≥ grade 2: 17%; gastrointestinal ≥ grade 3: 6.3% with lower prevalence at the last follow-up visit (≥ grade 3: genitourinary: 1.9%; gastrointestinal: 1.9%). Major predictors of ≥ grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal late toxicity were genitourinary acute toxicity ≥ grade 2 (hazard ratio: 4.9) and previous surgery (hazard ratio: 3.4). The overall 5 year bRFS was 93.7% (low risk: 94.6%; intermediate risk: 96.2%; high risk: 91.1%), overall survival and CSS were 88.6% (low risk: 90.5%; intermediate risk: 87.4%; high risk: 87%) and 97.5% (low risk: 98.7%; intermediate risk: 95%; high risk: 94.3%), respectively. Risk classes and androgen deprivation were not significantly correlated with either bRFS, overall survival or CSS. Twelve patients experienced a biochemical relapse but none experienced clinically proven local and/or pelvic recurrence.

Conclusion: A satisfactory 5 year outcome with an acceptable toxicity profile was observed. The combination of image-guided radiotherapy-intensity-modulated radiotherapy, high equivalent 2 Gy dose (EQD2) with a moderate hypofractionated approach and extensive prophylactic lymph node irradiation also leads to very good outcome in high-risk patients.

Keywords: Moderate hypofractionation; prostate cancer; simultaneous integrated boost; tomotherapy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Radiation Dose Hypofractionation
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided / adverse effects
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided / methods*
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects*
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome