A transducible nuclear/nucleolar protein, mLLP, regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic transmission

Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 10;6:22892. doi: 10.1038/srep22892.


Cell-permeable proteins are emerging as unconventional regulators of signal transduction and providing a potential for therapeutic applications. However, only a few of them are identified and studied in detail. We identify a novel cell-permeable protein, mouse LLP homolog (mLLP), and uncover its roles in regulating neural development. We found that mLLP is strongly expressed in developing nervous system and that mLLP knockdown or overexpression during maturation of cultured neurons affected the neuronal growth and synaptic transmission. Interestingly, extracellular addition of mLLP protein enhanced dendritic arborization, demonstrating the non-cell-autonomous effect of mLLP. Moreover, mLLP interacts with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as well as transcriptional machineries and modulates gene expression involved in neuronal growth. Together, these results illustrate the characteristics and roles of previously unknown cell-permeable protein mLLP in modulating neural development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • Cell Membrane Permeability
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dendrites / physiology
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Hippocampus / cytology
  • Humans
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neurogenesis
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Synaptic Transmission


  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • CTCF protein, human
  • Ctcf protein, mouse
  • LLP protein, mouse
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Repressor Proteins