Critical Review of Technical Questions Facing Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure: A Perspective From the Great Plains

Water Environ Res. 2015 Sep;87(9):849-62. doi: 10.2175/106143015X14362865226392.


Since its inception, Low Impact Development (LID) has become part of urban stormwater management across the United States, marking progress in the gradual transition from centralized to distributed runoff management infrastructure. The ultimate goal of LID is full, cost-effective implementation to maximize watershed-scale ecosystem services and enhance resilience. To reach that goal in the Great Plains, the multi-disciplinary author team presents this critical review based on thirteen technical questions within the context of regional climate and socioeconomics across increasing complexities in scale and function. Although some progress has been made, much remains to be done including continued basic and applied research, development of local LID design specifications, local demonstrations, and identifying funding mechanisms for these solutions. Within the Great Plains and beyond, by addressing these technical questions within a local context, the goal of widespread acceptance of LID can be achieved, resulting in more effective and resilient stormwater management.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Climate
  • Conservation of Natural Resources / economics*
  • Construction Industry
  • Ecology / economics
  • Ecology / methods*
  • Ecosystem*
  • Midwestern United States
  • Rain
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Water Purification / methods*