A three-dimensional actuated origami-inspired transformable metamaterial with multiple degrees of freedom

Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 11;7:10929. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10929.


Reconfigurable devices, whose shape can be drastically altered, are central to expandable shelters, deployable space structures, reversible encapsulation systems and medical tools and robots. All these applications require structures whose shape can be actively controlled, both for deployment and to conform to the surrounding environment. While most current reconfigurable designs are application specific, here we present a mechanical metamaterial with tunable shape, volume and stiffness. Our approach exploits a simple modular origami-like design consisting of rigid faces and hinges, which are connected to form a periodic structure consisting of extruded cubes. We show both analytically and experimentally that the transformable metamaterial has three degrees of freedom, which can be actively deformed into numerous specific shapes through embedded actuation. The proposed metamaterial can be used to realize transformable structures with arbitrary architectures, highlighting a robust strategy for the design of reconfigurable devices over a wide range of length scales.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Elasticity
  • Hardness
  • Manufactured Materials / analysis*
  • Materials Testing
  • Pliability
  • Polyethylene Terephthalates / chemistry*
  • Surface Properties
  • Technology / methods


  • Polyethylene Terephthalates