Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Multicenter Study
. 2016;52(2):719-29.
doi: 10.3233/JAD-160057.

Longitudinal Relationships Between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Multicenter Study

Longitudinal Relationships Between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

Cyrus A Raji et al. J Alzheimers Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual.

Objective: To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons.

Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent.

Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis.

Conclusion: Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status.

Keywords: Aging; dementia risk; energy expenditure; neuroimaging; neuroprotection; physical activity.

Figures

Fig.1
Fig.1
A) Main effect of increasing caloric expenditure on gray matter structure in the CHS. Red and yellow colors reflect larger gray matter volumes in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes with FDR <0.05. B) The main effects from panel A overlayed onto orhtogonal slices. Hotter colors denote a stronger effect and the cross hairs highlight the main effect of physical activity in the right hippocampus.
Fig.2
Fig.2
Main effect of the top quartile of physical activity as assessed by the top quartile of kcal measurements. The crosshairs point to a cluster of voxels denoting higher gray matter volumes in the top quartile group in the left precuneus, extending into the left lingual gyrus.A smaller cluster is seen in the same regions on the right lingual gyrus and precuneus.
Fig.3
Fig.3
Main effect of change in physical activity over time on gray matter structure. Areas that demonstrated more gray matter volume with increased physical activity over time include the left inferior orbital frontal cortex (–29, 25, –23) and left precuneus (–13, –63, 71).
Fig.4
Fig.4
This graphic shows the interaction between increasing caloric expenditure and cognitive impairment (MCI or AD) overlayed onto the left hippocampus (crosshairs) and cerebellar vermis.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. United Nations (2013) World Population Ageing 2013, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Volume: ST/ESA/SER.A/348. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/, Accessed 16 June 2014.
    1. Alzheimer’s Disease, International (2013) World Alzheimer Report: Journal of Caring: An Analysis of Long-Term Care for Dementia. Alzheimer’s Disease International, London. http://www.alz.co.uk/research/world-report-2013, Accessed 16 June 2014..
    1. Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Flicker L, Foster JK, Bockxmeer FM, Xiao J, Greenop KR, Almeida OP (2008) Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Azheimer disease. JAMA 300, 1027–1037. - PubMed
    1. Scarmeas N, Zarahn E, Anderson KE, Habeck CG, Hilton J, Flynn J, Marder KS, Bell KL, Sackeim HA, Van Heertum RL, Moeller JR, Stern Y (2003) Association of life activities with cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 359–365. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Steffen LM, Arnett DK, Blackburn H, Shah G, Armstrong C, Luepker RV, Jacobs DR Jr (2006) Population trends in leisure-time physical activity: Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980-2000. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 1716–1723. - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback