Association Between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Bone Health in Male and Female Adults

Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;68(3):189-96. doi: 10.1159/000444536. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Abstract

Background: High salt intake is a well-known risk factor for osteoporosis, but the association between bone mass and urinary sodium excretion has not been studied as yet. This study investigates the hypothesis that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone mass and the risk of osteoporosis.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Participants (n = 16,279) were divided into age groups; men were categorized as younger than 50 years of age or 50 years or greater, women were categorized as pre- or post-menopausal.

Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that urinary sodium excretion was negatively associated with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Sodium excretion was negatively associated with BMC and BMD of the lumbar spine in women with normal bone health, osteopenia and osteoporosis, but there was no association in men. Increased sodium excretion was significantly associated with risk for osteoporosis/osteopenia in premenopausal women.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone health, suggesting that high salt intake could be a possible risk factor for osteoporosis in Korean women, but not in men.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Bone Density
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / epidemiology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / ethnology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology*
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / urine
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Diet / ethnology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / ethnology
  • Osteoporosis / etiology*
  • Osteoporosis / urine
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / ethnology
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / etiology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / urine
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Sodium / urine*
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Sodium