Minimum Effective Doses of Succinylcholine and Rocuronium During Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Prospective, Randomized, Crossover Trial

Anesth Analg. 2016 Sep;123(3):587-96. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001218.


Background: Neuromuscular blockade is required to control excessive muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In a crossover, assessor-blinded, prospective randomized study, we studied the minimum effective dose (MED) of succinylcholine and rocuronium for ECT. The MED was the lowest dose to provide a predefined qualitative measure of acceptable control of muscle strength during induced convulsions.

Methods: Succinylcholine (0.8 mg kg) or rocuronium (0.4 mg kg) was randomly administered in 227 ECT sessions to 45 patients. The dose was incrementally increased or decreased by 10% based on 2 psychiatrists' (blinded to treatment) assessment of "acceptable" or "not acceptable" control of evoked muscle contractions (sufficient versus insufficient or excessive paralysis). The neuromuscular transmission was monitored quantitatively until full recovery.

Results: In our study, the MEDs of succinylcholine and rocuronium to produce acceptable ECT conditions in 50% of patients (MED50ECT) were 0.85 mg kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.94) and 0.41 mg kg (95% CI, 0.36-0.46) and in 90% of patients (MED90ECT) were 1.06 mg kg (95% CI, 1.0-1.27) and 0.57 mg kg (95% CI, 0.5-0.6), respectively. Nadir twitch height for acceptable muscle activity was 0% (0-4) and 4% (0-30; P < 0.001), respectively, and the time to recovery of the neuromuscular transmission was 9.7 ± 3.5 and 19.5 ± 5.7 minutes, respectively.

Conclusions: A twitch suppression of >90% is needed for control of motor contractions during ECT. The initial ECT dose of succinylcholine should be selected based on each patient's preprocedural condition, ranging between 0.77 and 1.27 mg kg to produce acceptable muscle blockade in 50% to 90% of patients. Rocuronium-neostigmine combination is a safe alternative if appropriately dosed (0.36-0.6 mg kg) and monitored.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Androstanols / administration & dosage*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rocuronium
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Succinylcholine / administration & dosage*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Androstanols
  • Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents
  • Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents
  • Succinylcholine
  • Rocuronium