Objectives: To report and compare early oncological outcomes and cancer recurrence sites among patients undergoing open radical cystectomy (ORC) and robotic-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC).
Methods and materials: A total of 184 patients underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. ORC cases (n = 94) were performed between June 2005 and July 2014 while iRARC cases (n = 90) were performed between June 2011 and July 2014. Primary outcome was recurrence free survival (RFS). Secondary outcomes were sites of local and metastatic recurrence, cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS).
Results: Median follow-up for patients without recurrence was 33.8 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 20.5-45.4) for ORC; and 16.1 months (IQR: 11.2-27.0) for iRARC. No significant difference in age, sex, precystectomy T stage, precystectomy grade, or lymph node yield between ORC and iRARC was observed. The ORC cohort included more patients with≥pT2 (64.8% ORC vs. 38.9% iRARC) but fewer pT0 status (8.5% ORC vs.vs. 22.2% iRARC) due to lower preoperative chemotherapy use (22.3% ORC vs. 34.4% iRARC). Positive surgical margin rate was significantly higher in the ORC cohort (19.3% vs. 8.2%; P = 0.042). Kaplan-Meir analysis showed no significant difference in RFS (69.5% ORC vs. 78.8% iRARC), cancer specific survival (80.9% ORC vs. 84.4% iRARC), or OS (73.5% ORC vs.vs. iRARC 83.8%) at 24 months. Cox regression analysis showed RFS, cancer specific survival and OS were not influenced by cystectomy technique. No significant difference between local and metastatic RFS between ORC and iRARC was observed.
Conclusion: This study has found no difference in recurrence patterns or oncological outcomes between ORC and iRARC. Recurrent metastatic sites vary, but are not related to surgical technique.
Keywords: Bladder cancer; Intracorporeal urinary diversion; Open cystectomy; Outcomes; Recurrence; Robotic-assisted cystectomy.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.