Diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy among rural women in Gujarat, India

Rural Remote Health. 2016 Jan-Mar;16(1):3629. Epub 2016 Mar 15.


Introduction: Type II diabetes has risen dramatically among rural women in India, specifically in the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Recent studies suggest that rural Indian women's low level of self-efficacy, or confidence in their ability to carry out tasks, such as managing diabetes, is a key reason for this increase. Therefore, this study utilizes the Health Belief Model to analyze whether increased awareness of diabetes leads to a positive increase in levels of self-efficacy among diabetic women in two rural villages of Gujarat.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 126 known cases of women with diabetes was carried out in the villages of Rajpur and Valam in the Mehsana District in the state of Gujarat, India, to assess the relationship between diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy. The instrument was adapted from the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center's Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Assessment of the Indian Institute of Public Health Gandhinagar.

Results: Participants' mean knowledge score was 10.77±2.86 out of a possible 24 points, for a mean percentage of 45%. The median self-efficacy score for the women was 7 with an interquartile range of 3. The age-adjusted multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between knowledge and self-efficacy (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The observations of this study suggest a positive correlation between diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy. Future diabetes educational interventions in India should place a greater emphasis on increasing knowledge among rural women. Specifically, these interventions should emphasize the major gaps in knowledge regarding causes of diabetes, complications and treatment procedures. Educational interventions that are catered more towards rural women will be critical for improving their self-efficacy.

Keywords: Asia; Cardiovascular health; Determinants of Health; Diabetes; Education; Health Needs Assessment; Health Promotion; Health Scientist; Health Service reform; Human Rights and Ethics; Medical; Public Health; Women's Health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult