Background: Single inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD2 complex failed in treatment of sepsis. CD14 is a coreceptor for several TLRs, including TLR4 and TLR2. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single TLR4-MD2 inhibition by using eritoran, compared with the effect of CD14 inhibition alone and combined with the C3 complement inhibitor compstatin (Cp40), on the bacteria-induced inflammatory response in human whole blood.
Methods: Cytokines were measured by multiplex technology, and leukocyte activation markers CD11b and CD35 were measured by flow cytometry.
Results: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory markers were efficiently abolished by both anti-CD14 and eritoran. Anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than eritoran in inhibiting LPS-binding to HEK-293E cells transfected with CD14 and Escherichia coli-induced upregulation of monocyte activation markers (P < .01). Combining Cp40 with anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than combining Cp40 with eritoran in reducing E. coli-induced interleukin 6 (P < .05) and monocyte activation markers induced by both E. coli (P < .001) and Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01). Combining CP40 with anti-CD14 was more efficient than eritoran alone for 18 of 20 bacteria-induced inflammatory responses (mean P < .0001).
Conclusions: Whole bacteria-induced inflammation was inhibited more efficiently by anti-CD14 than by eritoran, particularly when combined with complement inhibition. Combined CD14 and complement inhibition may prove a promising treatment strategy for bacterial sepsis.
Keywords: CD14; TLR; complement; eritoran; sepsis; treatment.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.