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Review
, 8 (3), 157

Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

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Review

Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

Roberto Berni Canani et al. Nutrients.

Abstract

Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

Keywords: FODMAPs intolerance; breath test; fructose malabsorption; glucose-galactose malabsorption; lactose intolerance; molecular analysis; sorbitol intolerance; sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; trehalose intolerance.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Classification of adverse food reactions (AFR).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Classification of carbohydrate intolerances. CSID: Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency; GGM: Glucose-Galactose Malabsorption; CLD: Congenital Lactase Deficiency.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Mechanisms involved in main carbohydrate intolerances. (A) Lactose intolerance due to deficiency of lactase enzyme; (B) glucose-galactose malabsorption due to a genetic defect in SGLT1 expression; (C) fructose malabsorption due to dose-dependent transporters overloading; (D) sucrase malabsorption due to a genetic defect in sucrase-isomaltase activity.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Pathogenesis of gut and brain symptoms in patients with intolerance to carbohydrates.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Breath test procedures in children with suspected carbohydrate intolerances.

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