Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies

Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 16;6:23068. doi: 10.1038/srep23068.


Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Citric Acid Cycle / genetics
  • Fructose / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Mannitol / metabolism
  • Metabolomics / methods*
  • Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Rhodobacteraceae / genetics*
  • Rhodobacteraceae / growth & development
  • Rhodobacteraceae / metabolism*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods
  • Sorbitol / metabolism
  • Sorbose / metabolism
  • Symbiosis*


  • Amino Acids
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Nucleotides
  • Fructose
  • Mannitol
  • Sorbitol
  • Glucose
  • Sorbose