This article presents a comprehensive review on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms governing rice-planthopper interactions, aiming to contribute substantial planthopper control and facilitate breeding for resistance to planthoppers in rice. The rice planthopper is the most destructive pest of rice and a substantial threat to rice production. The brown planthopper (BPH), white-backed planthopper (WBPH) and small brown planthopper (SBPH) are three species of delphacid planthoppers and important piercing-sucking pests of rice. Host-plant resistance has been recognized as the most practical, economical and environmentally friendly strategy to control planthoppers. Until now, at least 30, 14 and 34 major genes/quantitative trait loci for resistance to BPH, WBPH and SBPH have been identified, respectively. Recent inheritance and molecular mapping of gene analysis showed that some planthopper-resistance genes in rice derived from different donors aggregate in clusters, while resistance to these three species of planthoppers in a single donor is governed not by any one dominant gene but by multiple genes. Notably, Bph14, Bph26, Bph3 and Bph29 were successfully identified as BPH-resistance genes in rice. Biological and chemical studies on the feeding of planthoppers indicate that rice plants have acquired various forms of defence against planthoppers. Between the rice-planthopper interactions, rice plants defend against planthoppers through activation the salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance but not jasmonate-dependent hormone response pathways. Transgenic rice for the planthopper-resistance mechanism shows that jasmonate and its metabolites function diversely in rice's resistance to planthopper. Understanding the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying resistance in rice will contribute to the substantial control of such pests and facilitate breeding for rice's resistance to planthopper more efficiently.
Keywords: Defence; Molecular mechanism; Planthopper; Resistance gene; Rice.