Immunological Aspects of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes in Chinese

J Immunol Res. 2016;2016:1858202. doi: 10.1155/2016/1858202. Epub 2016 Feb 14.


Background. Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) is a novel subtype of type 1 diabetes characterized by extremely rapid onset and complete deficiency of insulin due to the destruction of pancreatic β cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the etiology of this disease remain unclear. Methods. A total of 22 patients with FT1D and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Serum antibodies to GAD, IA2, and ZnT8 in patients were tested. And peripheral T cell responses to GAD65, insulin B9-23 peptide, or C peptide were determined in 10 FT1D patients and 10 healthy controls. The mRNA levels of several related cytokines and molecules, such as IFN-γ, IL-4, RORC, and IL-17 in PBMCs from FT1D patients were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Result. We found that a certain proportion of Chinese FT1D patients actually have developed islet-related autoantibodies after onset of the disease. The GAD, insulin, or C peptide-reactive T cells were found in some FT1D patients. We also detected a significant increase for IFN-γ expression in FT1D PBMCs as compared with that of healthy controls. Conclusion. Autoimmune responses might be involved in the pathogenesis of Chinese FT1D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Autoimmunity
  • C-Peptide / immunology
  • Cation Transport Proteins / blood
  • Cation Transport Proteins / immunology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / blood
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Interleukin-17 / genetics
  • Interleukin-4 / genetics
  • Islets of Langerhans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Male
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Young Adult
  • Zinc Transporter 8


  • Autoantibodies
  • C-Peptide
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Cytokines
  • IL17A protein, human
  • Interleukin-17
  • SLC30A8 protein, human
  • Zinc Transporter 8
  • Interleukin-4
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • glutamate decarboxylase 2