Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and lessons learned

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016 Oct;15(10):1295-304. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2016.1166961. Epub 2016 Mar 30.


In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcus has been estimated to cause 12,000-28,000 deaths, 182,000 hospitalizations, and 1.4 million clinic visits annually. Countries in the Americas have been among the first developing nations to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into their Expanded Programs on Immunization, with 34 countries and territories having introduced these vaccines as of September 2015. Lessons learned for successful vaccine introduction include the importance of coordination between political and technical decision makers, adjustments to the cold chain prior to vaccine introduction, and the need for detailed plans addressing the financial and technical sustainability of introduction. Though many questions on the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine remain unanswered, the experience of the Americas suggests that the vaccines can be introduced quickly and effectively.

Keywords: Pneumococcus; new vaccines; pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; pneumonia; surveillance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Caribbean Region / epidemiology
  • Communicable Disease Control / economics
  • Communicable Disease Control / organization & administration
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Latin America / epidemiology
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / immunology*
  • Refrigeration
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / immunology


  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Conjugate