Bacterial Vaginosis and Pregnancy Outcome in Lagos, Nigeria

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 9;3(1):ofw030. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofw030. eCollection 2016 Jan.

Abstract

Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora and a malodorous discharge when symptomatic. In pregnancy, BV has been associated with adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and low birth weight. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associations of BV and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study with high vaginal swabs obtained from consecutive newly registered antenatal women between 14 and 36 weeks gestation. The women were monitored until delivery, and their pregnancy outcome and demographic data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed by Nugent score in 64 of 246 women, giving a prevalence rate of 26%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with preterm delivery (risk ratio [RR], 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-4.98), low birth weight (RR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.29-7.94), and premature rupture of membranes (RR, 6.75; 95% CI, 3.11-14.67). The association between BV and miscarriage (<28 weeks gestation) and neonatal admission for various morbidities was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The prevalence rate of BV among pregnant women in LUTH is high and is significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Routine screening and treatment of women preconceptually may enable interventions to prevent these adverse outcomes.

Keywords: bacterial vaginosis; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; preterm birth.