Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects

PLoS One. 2016 Mar 18;11(3):e0151985. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151985. eCollection 2016.


Background: Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal.

Method: Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings.

Results: With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, P<0.001), GLP-1 (0-90 min, P<0.05) and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05), compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0-120 min, P = 0.001), serum insulin response (0-120 min, P<0.05) and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05). Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05), and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001), indicating increased colonic fermentation activity.

Conclusion: The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite Regulation
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breakfast
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / blood
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / blood
  • Diet Therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood
  • Humans
  • Hunger*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / blood
  • Nucleobindins
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / prevention & control
  • Secale*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Nucleobindins

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02093481

Grants and funding

This study was supported by the Antidiabetic Food Centre, a VINNOVA VINN Excellence Center at Lund University (grant number 2013/46). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.