Long-term excess mortality in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: predictors, causes and clinical consequences

Eur J Heart Fail. 2016 Jun;18(6):650-6. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.494. Epub 2016 Mar 14.


Aims: Despite increasing research efforts, the prognostic consequences of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the long-term mortality rate of TTC patients with high-risk patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods and results: A total of 286 patients with TTC were matched for age and gender with 286 STEMI patients. Outcome was obtained with a standardized telephone follow-up. The primary analysis determined long-term mortality. A secondary analysis was performed evaluating 28-day and 1-year mortality. Follow-up was available for 96% of patients after a mean of 3.8 ± 2.5 years. In TTC patients, long-term mortality was significantly higher compared with the matched STEMI cohort [24.7% vs. 15.1%, hazard ratio (HR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.33; P = 0.02]. There was no significant difference in the rates of 28-day (5.5% vs. 5.7%, HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.47-1.94; P = 0.91) and 1-year mortality (12.5% vs. 9%, HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.85-2.38; P = 0.18). In multivariable regression analysis, male sex, a high Killip class on admission, and diabetes mellitus were identified as independent predictors of mortality in TTC patients. A risk score consisting of these factors showed a higher mortality with an increasing number of risk factors.

Conclusion: Mortality rates in TTC patients are higher than previously expected and long-term mortality exceeded that of patients with STEMI. A simple risk score may provide an approach to identify high-risk patients and predict clinical prognosis.

Keywords: Apical ballooning syndrome; Long-term prognosis; Mortality; Stress cardiomyopathy; Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / mortality*
  • Sex Factors
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / mortality*