Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review

Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2016 Mar-Apr;45(3):163-7.


Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Arm Injuries / therapy*
  • Athletic Injuries / therapy*
  • Baseball / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Shoulder Injuries*
  • Superficial Back Muscles / injuries*
  • Upper Extremity / injuries