ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA Can Identify High-Risk Single Autoantibody-Positive Relatives in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016 Jul;18(7):410-4. doi: 10.1089/dia.2015.0316. Epub 2016 Mar 18.


Background: Relatives with single positive islet autoantibodies have a much lower risk of progression to diabetes than those with multiple autoantibodies.

Materials and methods: TrialNet subjects positive for single autoantibody to insulin (mIAA) (n = 50) or single autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) (n = 50) were analyzed using new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays (ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA, respectively) at their initial visit and longitudinally over time. Affinity assays were performed on a subset of single autoantibody-positive subjects at initial and most recent visits.

Results: After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 20 subjects developed type 1 diabetes. Among either single GADA or single mIAA subjects, those who were positive in the ECL assay showed higher affinity at the initial visit, and affinity results stayed consistent over time. No converting events from low to high or high to low affinity were seen over time.

Conclusions: Confirmed positivity for ECL is associated with high affinity and can help staging of risk for type 1 diabetes in single autoantibody-positive subjects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antibody Affinity
  • Autoantibodies / analysis*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / analysis
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Insulin Antibodies / analysis*
  • Luminescence
  • Male
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Risk Assessment
  • Young Adult


  • Autoantibodies
  • Insulin Antibodies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase