Background: Few studies have investigated the treatment and the outcomes of patients with catheter-related thrombosis (CRT).
Methods: The RIETE registry (Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica [Computerized Registry of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism]) is a prospective international registry of consecutive patients with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with CRT.
Results: Of 558 patients with CRT, 45 (8%) presented with a pulmonary embolism (PE) concomitantly. More patients had central line-associated thrombosis compared with port systems, but catheter type did not influence the risk of presenting with a PE. Patients with only CRT were more often prescribed low-molecular-weight heparin for the duration of their anticoagulant treatment compared with patients presenting with concomitant PE. VTE recurrences and major bleeding events occurred frequently during treatment with anticoagulation (7 per 100 patient-years and 8.9 per 100 patient years, respectively). The rates of fatal PE recurrences (1.85 per 100 patient-years) and fatal bleeding (2.32 per 100 patient-years) were similar. Patients with an additional transient risk factor for VTE had the lowest risk for VTE recurrences (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.45) compared with patients with CRT and no additional transient risk factors. PE at presentation increased the risk of recurrent thrombosis by 2.4 times. Renal insufficiency was also an independent predictor of recurrent thrombosis (OR, 3.93; 90% CI, 2.0-7.7). The odds of recurrent thrombosis was decreased by 77% in patients who received anticoagulation therapy for >90 days compared with patients with a shorter treatment (OR, 0.23; 90% CI, 0.1-0.56).
Conclusions: Concomitant PE occurs less frequently in CRT than lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, but it is associated with a worse outcome. CRT occurs in high-risk patients, and duration of anticoagulation must be predicated on balancing these risks.
Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.