Purpose: To compare the clinical and second-look arthroscopic outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic marrow stimulation combined with lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy for varus ankle osteoarthritis, with or without adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection.
Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, 49 patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis underwent second-look arthroscopy after arthroscopic marrow stimulation combined with lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy between January 2010 and November 2012; 23 ankles underwent marrow stimulation alone (group 1), and 26 underwent marrow stimulation with MSC injection (group 2). The decision whether to receive the MSC injection, which was free of charge, was solely up to the patients. Second-look arthroscopies were performed at a mean of 12.5 months and 12.4 months postoperatively in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Clinical outcome measures included a visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The radiologic outcome variable was the talar tilt angle. On second-look arthroscopy, cartilage regeneration was evaluated using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade.
Results: The mean VAS score improved significantly from 7.3 ± 0.9 to 3.9 ± 1.2 in group 1 and from 7.4 ± 0.8 to 3.1 ± 1.5 in group 2 at final follow-up (P < .001 for both groups). The mean AOFAS score also improved significantly from 64.4 ± 4.1 to 79.6 ± 7.7 in group 1 and from 63.5 ± 4.2 to 84.2 ± 7.9 in group 2 at final follow-up (P < .001 for both groups). The VAS and AOFAS scores were significantly better in group 2 than in group 1 (P = .040 and P = .047, respectively). ICRS grades were significantly correlated with clinical outcomes in both groups (all P < .05), and there were significant differences in ICRS grades between the groups (P < .05). The mean talar tilt angle improved significantly after lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy in both groups and was significantly correlated with clinical outcomes and ICRS grade (all P < .05).
Conclusions: In patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis who underwent lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy, significant improvements in VAS and AOFAS scores, as well as better ICRS grades, were achieved at short-term follow-up after marrow stimulation with additional MSC injection compared with after marrow stimulation alone.
Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.