Aims: To assess the causes of death and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios in two nationwide, population-based cohorts diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes during the periods 1973-1982 and 1989-2012, and to evaluate changes in causes of death during the follow-up period.
Methods: People with Type 1 diabetes who were aged < 15 years at diagnosis were identified in the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry and followed from diagnosis until death, emigration or September 2013 (n = 7871). We assessed causes of death by linking data to the nationwide Cause of Death Registry and through a review committee that evaluated medical records, autopsy reports and death certificates.
Results: During a mean (range) follow-up of 16.8 (0-40.7) years, 241 individuals (3.1%) died, representing 132 143 person-years. The leading cause of death before the age of 30 years was acute complications (41/119, 34.5%). After the age of 30 years cardiovascular disease was predominant (41/122, 33.6%), although death attributable to acute complications was still important in this age group (22/122, 18.0%). A total of 5% of deaths were caused by 'dead-in-bed' syndrome. The standardized mortality ratio was elevated for cardiovascular disease [11.9 (95% CI 8.6-16.4)] and violent death [1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.1)] in both sexes combined, but was elevated for suicide only in women [2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.3)]. The risk of death from acute complications was approximately half in women compared with men [hazard ratio 0.43 (95% CI 0.25-0.76)], and did not change with more recent year of diagnosis [hazard ratio 1.02 (0.98-1.05)].
Conclusions: There was no change in mortality attributable to acute complications during the study period. To reduce premature mortality in people with childhood-onset diabetes focus should be on prevention of acute complications. Male gender implied increased risk.
© 2016 Diabetes UK.