Objective: We analyzed individuals with epilepsy due to Sturge-Weber syndrome to determine which anticonvulsants provided optimal seizure control and which resulted in the fewest side effects.
Methods: One-hundred-eight records from a single center were retrospectively analyzed for Sturge-Weber syndrome brain involvement, epilepsy, Sturge-Weber syndrome neuroscores, and currently used anticonvulsants.
Results: Of the fourteen anticonvulsants that had been employed, the most often used agents were oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures. Thirty-nine of 69 individuals (56.5%) were seizure-free with oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine history versus 11 of 35 individuals (31.4%) who had not taken these agents (P < 0.05); 38 of 62 patients (61.3%) were seizure-free while currently taking these anticonvulsants versus 12 of 42 (28.6%) not taking them (P < 0.01). Patients with seizure control for 6 months or longer were less likely to have ever tried, or to currently be taking, levetiracetam than those without control. Sixteen of 56 individuals (28.6%) were seizure-free with levetiracetam history versus 34 of 48 (70.8%) without it (P < 0.001); 14 of 43 individuals (32.6%) were seizure-free and currently taking levetiracetam versus 36 of 61 (59.0%) not taking it (P < 0.01). When topiramate was added as second-line medication, five of nine patients (55.6%) experienced decreased seizure severity, and worsening of glaucoma was not reported.
Conclusions: Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were associated with better seizure control than levetiracetam in this Sturge-Weber syndrome cohort and so may be preferred as the initial therapy. When used as adjunctive therapy, topiramate was effective in this limited analysis without a clear increased incidence of glaucoma.
Keywords: Sturge-Weber syndrome; anticonvulsant; carbamazepine; epilepsy; levetiracetam; oxcarbazepine; side effects.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.