Effects of High Salt Intake on Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of COX Inhibitors

Clin Cardiol. 2016 Apr;39(4):240-2. doi: 10.1002/clc.22536. Epub 2016 Mar 21.


Sodium has a bidirectional effect on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). High sodium intake increases both BP and CVD, whereas low sodium intake decreases them. The significance of this association has been debated for years, mostly due to the inconsistency of data, but recently it has been revived due to new evidence about the harmful effects of sodium. Recent studies have indicated that high sodium intake was associated with an increase in BP and CVD, which in 2010 was estimated to have accounted for 1.65 million deaths worldwide. Based on this evidence, the American Heart Association has issued a Science Advisory statement regarding the significance of high sodium intake in relation to the incidence of hypertension and CVD. In addition to high sodium intake, experimental studies have shown that the coadministration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs further aggravates the harmful effects of high sodium intake. The interrelationship of high sodium intake and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs will be discussed in this commentary.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / enzymology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / enzymology
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Prostaglandins / metabolism
  • Protective Factors
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk Reduction Behavior
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects*


  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Prostaglandins
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases