Objective: To investigate risk factors specific to posterior crossbite and anterior open bite at the age of 3 years.
Materials and methods: The study included 422 children of the French EDEN mother-child cohort. The main outcomes were the presence of posterior crossbite and anterior open bite assessed by dentists at 3 years. Social characteristics (collected during pregnancy), neonatal characteristics (collected at birth), duration of breast-feeding (collected prospectively), sucking habits at 3 years, and open lips (as a proxy for mouth breathing) were studied and two logistic regressions conducted.
Results: Preterm birth appears to be a risk factor specific for posterior crossbite (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.13-8.68), whereas small for gestational age seems to be associated with a lower risk of posterior crossbite (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.87). Ongoing pacifier or thumb sucking at 3 years is a risk factor for both posterior crossbite and anterior open bite.
Conclusions: Children born preterm seem to be more at risk for posterior crossbite than those born at term. Different mechanisms may be involved in posterior crossbite and anterior open bite.
Keywords: Child; Crossbite; Epidemiology; Open bite; Orthodontics; Preterm birth.