Early risk factors for posterior crossbite and anterior open bite in the primary dentition

Angle Orthod. 2016 Sep;86(5):832-8. doi: 10.2319/102715-723.1. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate risk factors specific to posterior crossbite and anterior open bite at the age of 3 years.

Materials and methods: The study included 422 children of the French EDEN mother-child cohort. The main outcomes were the presence of posterior crossbite and anterior open bite assessed by dentists at 3 years. Social characteristics (collected during pregnancy), neonatal characteristics (collected at birth), duration of breast-feeding (collected prospectively), sucking habits at 3 years, and open lips (as a proxy for mouth breathing) were studied and two logistic regressions conducted.

Results: Preterm birth appears to be a risk factor specific for posterior crossbite (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.13-8.68), whereas small for gestational age seems to be associated with a lower risk of posterior crossbite (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.87). Ongoing pacifier or thumb sucking at 3 years is a risk factor for both posterior crossbite and anterior open bite.

Conclusions: Children born preterm seem to be more at risk for posterior crossbite than those born at term. Different mechanisms may be involved in posterior crossbite and anterior open bite.

Keywords: Child; Crossbite; Epidemiology; Open bite; Orthodontics; Preterm birth.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Malocclusion*
  • Open Bite*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sucking Behavior*
  • Tooth, Deciduous