Directed Assembly and Development of Material-Free Tissues with Complex Architectures

Adv Mater. 2016 Jun;28(21):4032-9. doi: 10.1002/adma.201505723. Epub 2016 Mar 22.


Material-free tissues are assembled using solely cells. Microstructured hydrogel templates and high content screening allow the formation of centimeter-scale tissues with precise architectures. Similar to developing tissues, these contract autonomously, controllably shift shape, self-scaffold by secreting extracellular matrix, and undergo morphogenesis.

Keywords: bottom-up tissue engineering; cellular building blocks; directed development; high-throughput screening; tissues.

MeSH terms

  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Hydrogels
  • Tissue Engineering*


  • Hydrogels