Background: Assays of molecular biomarkers in urine are non-invasive compared to other body fluids and can be easily repeated. Based on the hypothesis that the secreted markers from the diseased organs may locally release into the body fluid in the vicinity of the injury, urine-based assays have been considered beneficial to monitoring bladder health and urological diseases. The urine proteome is much less complex than the serum and tissues, but nevertheless can contain biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The urine metabolome has a much higher number and concentration of low-molecular metabolites than the serum or tissues, with a far lower lipid concentration, yet informs directly about dietary and microbial metabolism.
Discussion: We here discuss the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics for urine biomarker assays, specifically with respect to the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition.
Conclusion: Molecular biomarker profiles, based on proteomics and metabolomics studies, reliably distinguish patients from healthy controls, stratify sub-populations with respect to treatment options, and predict therapeutic response of patients with urological disease.
Keywords: Bladder diseases; Metabolomics; Proteomics; Urinary biomarkers.