Angiogenesis and Vascularization of Uterine Leiomyoma: Clinical Value of Pseudocapsule Containing Peptides and Neurotransmitters

Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18(2):129-139. doi: 10.2174/1389203717666160322150338.


Fibroids or myomas involve large proportion of women of reproductive age. The myoma formation starts from the transformation of the myometrium, causing the progressive formation of a pseudocapsule, which is made of compressed muscle fibers. Numerous studies investigated on myoma pseudocapsule anatomy, discovering many neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, as a neurovascular bundle, influencing myometrial physiology. These substances have a positive impact on wound healing and muscular restoring, also playing a role in sexual and reproductive function. Based on investigations, a distinct surgical technique evolved, called "intracapsular myomectomy", meaning myoma removal from its pseudocapsule, which enables protection of the myoma pseudocapsule, containing neuropeptides and neurofibers involved in physiological myometrial healing. This technique, performed by a gentle myoma enucleating by stretching from myometrium and sparing pseudocapsule, reduces surgical trauma caused by iatrogenic myoma pseudocapsule damage. Intracapsular myomectomy meets the basic surgical anatomy principle: myoma is removed by a bloodless, precise and careful dissection sparing myometrium, as much as possible. The rationale of intracapsular myomectomy should be applied to all myoma removals; therefore, it has been used for both laparoscopic and laparotomic myomectomy, as well as for cesarean myomectomy. Scientific research is still seeks to clarify some reports of myomas with infertility, especially in the case of intramural myomas, but it is clear that in the case of performing myomectomy, it must do by the described intracapsular technique. This enables myometrial preservation, especially peripherally to myoma bed, promoting myometrial healing after myoma removal.

Keywords: Fibroids; angiogenesis; fertility; hysterectomy; myoma; myomectomy; pregnancy; pseudocapsule; sterility.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma / genetics
  • Leiomyoma / metabolism*
  • Leiomyoma / pathology
  • Leiomyoma / surgery
  • Myometrium / metabolism
  • Myometrium / pathology
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism*
  • Peptides / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Uterine Myomectomy


  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Peptides