Modification of a traditional breakfast leads to increased satiety along with attenuated plasma increments of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in humans

Nutr Res. 2016 Apr;36(4):359-368. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.004. Epub 2015 Dec 8.


Our hypothesis was that carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of meals affect satiety, glucose homeostasis, and hormone secretion. The objectives of this crossover trial were to examine satiety, glycemic-insulinemic response, and plasma peptide levels in response to 2 different recommended diabetes diets with equivalent energy content. One traditional reference breakfast and one test breakfast, with lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content, were randomly administered to healthy volunteers (8 men, 12 women). Blood samples were collected, and satiety was scored on a visual analog scale before and 3 hours after meals. Plasma glucose was measured, and levels of C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and adipokines were analyzed by Luminex. Greater satiety, visual analog scale, and total and delta area under the curve (P < .001), and lower glucose postprandial peak (max) and change from baseline (dmax; P < .001) were observed after test meal compared with reference meal. Postprandial increments of C-peptide, insulin, and GIP were suppressed after test meal compared with reference meal (total delta area under the curve [P = .03, .006, and .004], delta area under the curve [P = .006, .003, and .02], max [P = .01, .007, and .002], and dmax [P = .004, .008, and .007], respectively). Concentrations of other peptides were similar between meals. A lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content provides greater satiety and attenuation of C-peptide, glucose, insulin, and GIP responses compared with the reference breakfast but does not affect adipokines, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

Keywords: Adipokines; Blood glucose; Diet; Gastrointestinal hormones; Humans; Satiety.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Breakfast / physiology*
  • C-Peptide / analysis*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropeptides / blood
  • Postprandial Period
  • Satiation / physiology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Neuropeptides
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide