Few topics in nutrition engender more controversy than added sugars in general, and fructose-containing sugars in particular. Some investigators have argued that added sugars are associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even sugar 'addiction'. Other investigators have questioned the scientific basis for all of these assertions. This debate has extended far beyond the scientific community into various media outlets including the internet and other non-refereed venues often with heated rhetoric and little science. Against this backdrop, a group of experts and researchers in the metabolism and health effects of added sugars presented a symposium 'Sweeteners and Health: Findings from Recent Research and their Impact on Obesity and Related Metabolic Conditions' at the European Congress on Obesity on 7 May 2015. The papers in this supplement are based on the presentations made at this meeting. The current article is intended to serve as an Introduction to this supplement.