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. 2016 Mar 21;16(1):29.
doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iew012. Print 2016.

Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

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Free PMC article

Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

Ashley E Case et al. J Insect Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

Keywords: Castanea dentata; Castanea mollissima; Cyrtepistomus castaneus; defoliation; hybrid chestnut.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Mean estimated percent defoliation by generation at site TEN and NOC in 2012. Hybrid generations are in order from most genetically similar to parental species. Error bars indicate standard error. Within sites, means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05. Bars without labels did not statistically differ.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Mean estimated percent defoliation by month at site TEN and NOC in 2012. Error bars indicate standard error. Within site, means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Mean estimated percent defoliation, by generation and month, at site TEN (panel A) and NOC (panel B) in 2012. Hybrid generations are in order from most genetically similar to parental species. Error bars indicate standard error, and means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05. Bars without labels did not statistically differ.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.
Mean number of C. castaneus by month and site. Within site, means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.
Mean number of C. castaneus collected by generation and month, at TEN (panel A) and NOC (panel B) in 2012. Hybrid generations are in order from most genetically similar to parental species. Bars labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.
Mean percent frequency of C. castaneus by month and site. Within site, means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.
Mean percent frequency of C. castaneus by species/generation and site. Hybrid generations are in order from most genetically similar to parental species. Within site, means labeled with the same letter are not significantly different alpha < 0.05.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.
Mean number of C. castaneus per trap per week, under Quercus and non-Quercus overstory at TEN 2012. All points represent dates of collection.

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