Oral and esophageal candidosis are very common in HIV-infected patients. Due to the lack of efficacy of topical antimycotics in advanced stages of HIV-infection oral azoles are mainly used for treatment. Azoles most often used are ketoconazole and fluconazole. While Candida albicans clearly is the most frequently encountered yeast before and after treatment other species can be found somewhat less frequently after treatment. This especially applies to Candida glabrata. Candida spp. other than C. albicans obviously may cause manifest oral candidosis. This shift of microbes deserves the more interest as they are less susceptible to azole drugs.