Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats

Planta Med. 2016 May;82(7):612-20. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-102062. Epub 2016 Mar 22.


Inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in the development of hypertension. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on enzyme activities of purinergic and cholinergic systems as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced hypertensive rats. The rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10); groups 1-3 included normotensive control rats, hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats, and hypertensive control rats treated with atenolol (an antihypertensive drug), while groups 4 and 5 included normotensive and hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats treated with 4 % supplementation of turmeric, respectively, and groups 6 and 7 included normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4 % supplementation of ginger, respectively. The animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 40 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed a significant increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis, adenosine deaminase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes from Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats when compared with the control rats. In addition, an increase in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and - 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) with a concomitant decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) was observed in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation of both rhizomes was efficient in preventing these alterations in hypertensive rats by decreasing ATP hydrolysis, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats. Thus, these activities could suggest a possible insight about the protective mechanisms of the rhizomes against hypertension-related inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Butyrylcholinesterase / metabolism*
  • Cholinergic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology
  • Curcuma*
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Hypertension / diet therapy*
  • Hypertension / enzymology
  • Male
  • Plant Preparations / therapeutic use*
  • Purinergic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Purinergic Agents / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Rhizome
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Zingiber officinale*


  • Cholinergic Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Plant Preparations
  • Purinergic Agents
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Butyrylcholinesterase