Genomes of Cryptic Chimpanzee Plasmodium Species Reveal Key Evolutionary Events Leading to Human Malaria

Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 22;7:11078. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11078.


African apes harbour at least six Plasmodium species of the subgenus Laverania, one of which gave rise to human Plasmodium falciparum. Here we use a selective amplification strategy to sequence the genome of chimpanzee parasites classified as Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium gaboni based on the subgenomic fragments. Genome-wide analyses show that these parasites indeed represent distinct species, with no evidence of cross-species mating. Both P. reichenowi and P. gaboni are 10-fold more diverse than P. falciparum, indicating a very recent origin of the human parasite. We also find a remarkable Laverania-specific expansion of a multigene family involved in erythrocyte remodelling, and show that a short region on chromosome 4, which encodes two essential invasion genes, was horizontally transferred into a recent P. falciparum ancestor. Our results validate the selective amplification strategy for characterizing cryptic pathogen species, and reveal evolutionary events that likely predisposed the precursor of P. falciparum to colonize humans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Protozoan / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Malaria, Falciparum / parasitology*
  • Multigene Family
  • Pan troglodytes / parasitology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Plasmodium / genetics
  • Plasmodium falciparum / genetics*
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction